English

Information skills

Referencing

When submitting academic work for assessment, it is important to provide precise bibliographic information on all of the sources you consulted during its preparation. The use of proper citation and referencing within your work will:

  • help you to avoid plagiarism
  • enable your readers to follow your line of research and locate the sources that you've used
  • distinguish your ideas from those of others
  • acknowledge the work of others
  • demonstrate the scope of your reading

A range of referencing styles are used within the University, so please check your subject handbook for the preferred style for your College/subject.

Once you have established which style you should be using, it is important to be consistent in its application.

New media like YouTube, podcasts and vidcasts have led to the development of separate rules for citing moving image and sound sources. See the British Universities Film & Video Council’s guidelines for examples.

 

Referencing software packages

Various referencing software packages are available which enable you to compile and manage your references and to automatically create citations and bibliographies as you work. Using one of these packages can save you a lot of time when it comes to preparing your academic work.

Users of Microsoft Windows 2007 can format their citations in several styles, including APA, Chicago, MLA and Turabian.

Referencing Styles


Here are some links to online guides to some of the most commonly used referencing styles:

APA (American Psychological Association)
 

Research and Documentation Online - Social Sciences : Documenting Sources: a comprehensive guide to the application of APA style to a range of sources, including electronic sources. Provides examples of in-text citations and references.
APA Style Examples from Monash University.

British Standards

Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Material: this British Standards Institution print publication provides guidelines for documenting sources using: 1. the Harvard system; 2. the numeric system; 3. running notes.

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press style manual is preferred by the Department of History.


Chicago

Research and Documentation Online - History: Documenting Sources: comprehensive guide to the application of Chicago style to a range of sources, including electronic sources.
Chicago - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on the application of the Chicago style to a range of sources.


Harvard

Guide to Citation in the Harvard Style: a guide from Bournemouth University.
Harvard - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on how to create citations and bibliographic references using the Harvard referencing system. It also provides examples of paraphrasing and using quotations, and includes a quiz to test your referencing skills.
Harvard System of Referencing Guide: a detailed guide written by library staff at Anglia Ruskin University.
References: Harvard Style: a comprehensive guide from Leeds University on how to set out references within your work using the Harvard refencing system. 


MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association)

MHRA Style Guide: available as a download, this standard textbook outlines everything to do with the MHRS referencing style.


MLA
 (Modern Languages Association)

Research and Documentation Online - Humanities: Documenting Sources: a comprehensive guide to the application of MLA style to a range of sources, including electronic sources.
MLA - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on the application of the MLA style to a range of sources.


Vancouver

Vancouver style: introduction: an online tutorial from the University of Sussex covering the application of the Vancouver style referencing system . It provides examples of in-text citations, and includes a quick quiz to test your knowledge.
Vancouver style examples from Monash University.