Reference materials can be a good place to start research.
Library of Congress Country Studies. Fully searchable online versions of the guides previously published in hard copy by the Federal Research Division of Library of Congress, between 1987 and 2008, although for most countries the date of original publication is pre-21st century. Most Muslim countries are included.
The World Factbook, produce by the Central Intelligence Agency. Up-to-date information on every country in the world.
Looklex Encyclopedia (formerly called Encyclopedia of the Orient) is a useful resource, although the commercial advertisements are somewhat distracting. The on-line encyclopaedia has short entries on people, places, events, movements and ideas for the whole of the Middle East and North Africa. Use it in conjunction with the Looklex Atlas (formerly called Atlas of the Orient) at the same site.
Encyclopaedia Iranica is a massive and essential reference work for all things Iranian. Despite being incomplete (complete alphabetical entries have only reached the letter K) and having an individualistic transliteration scheme, this is an invaluable site.
Islamic Calendar Converter converts dates from Gregorian to Hijri and vice-versa. For another site see Conversion of Islamic and Christian Dates, and for conversion of dates into other Middle Eastern calendars (Hebrew, Persian, Baha'i) see Calendar Converter
Transliteration Tables for Arabic-Script languages is available from the ALA-LC Romanization Tables prepared by the American Library Association and the Library of Congress. This is the system adopted by British and North American Libraries with Middle Eastern collections and provides tables for most living Middle Eastern languages, including Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian, Hebrew and Yiddish, Kurdish, Ottoman Turkish, Persian, Pushtu, Uighur and Urdu.